Total capital is Tier 1 equity capital, consisting of equity capital, disclosed reserves and Tier 2 capital, made up of revaluation reserves, undisclosed reserves, hybrid instruments and subordinated term debt.
Minimum capital adequacy ratios are critical in ensuring that banks have enough cushion to absorb a reasonable amount of losses before they become insolvent and consequently lose depositors’ funds. The minimum ratio of capital to risk-weighted assets is 8% under Basel II and 10.5% under Basel III.
A nonperforming asset (NPA) refers to a classification for loans or advances that are in default or in arrears. A loan is in arrears when principal or interest payments are late or missed. A loan is in default when the lender considers the loan agreement to be broken and the debtor is unable to meet his obligations. In most cases, debt is classified as nonperforming when loan payments have not been made for a period of 90 days.